Stereotypic behaviour is an indication of bad welfare

Ethologist Lucy Rees discusses stereotypic behaviours such as cribbing, weaving etc. and why they are indicators of bad welfare.

horse health behaviour
Watch the interview with Lucy Rees here:

Stereotypic behaviours are often described as coping mechanisms and are often ignored by horse owners as they appear to be ‘good’ for the horse. But saying this is like saying a drug addict is coping by using drugs. Stereotypic behaviours are performed as a response to high levels of stress – normal behaviour brings the horse comfort, being able to move around freely, graze and socialise with other horses. When the horse isn’t able to achieve this, they seek comfort elsewhere and begin displaying abnormal versions of their normal behaviours.

Stereotypic behaviours bring about health problems such as colic because chronic stress reduces immunity, disrupts digestion, and reduces healing time. They can also become so comulsive and addictive that they overtake normal responses in horses and reduce productivity or performance. When I filmed the herd behaviour documentary in 2015, you can clearly see a horse that is so addicted to the stereotypic behaviour that, when confronted by a stressful situation, instead of responding normally like the other horses by running, he stands and just crib bites the entire time.  

Rees mentions that the way to manage stereotypies is to allow horses to move about freely (liberty), to have social contact with other horses, and to graze. Even if horses appear to recover and no longer perform stereotypic behaviours, high stress situations can trigger a recurrence. 

Don’t ignore stereotypic behaviours if you see them at your yard or if your horse performs them. They are an indication that your horse is struggling and not coping in their environment. Your horse is lacking the ability to express normal behaviour.

YouTube video by Dr. Andrew Hemmings — Stereotypic behaviour in horses —

A fascinating presentation by Dr. Andrew Hemmings, Head of School – Equine Management & Science, Royal Agricultural University, at the 27th National Equine Forum 2019, investigating brain function in relation to two common stereotypic behaviours; crib-biting and weaving.

equine stereotypies
Directs to the video on YouTUbe []
Dr. Hemmings mentions what he believes are the top 3 causal factors for stereotypies, which directly supports modern research and is aligned to the ethological needs of horses:

  1. Diet high in concentrates, low in forage
  2. Social isolation
  3. Restricted locomotion 

Some key messages from the presentation:

  • Feeding palatable food triggers the cribbing response
  • Cribbing collars, shock devices for stables are not welfare-friendly. Recommendation for managing cribbing is to cut down concentrates, feed good quality forage instead
  • Changes in opioid receptors are impacted by stress – keep stress levels to a minimum
  • Outcome of a learning trial showed that crib biters and weavers learn much faster, but unlearn slower and with difficulty (highly habitual).  Recommendation – Adapt training regimes to account for this, especially with unwanted behaviours

Setting a standard for good horse welfare

In her 2003 article, Focus on animal welfare, Caroline Hewson stated, “…whatever we decide (about animal welfare) as a profession or as individuals, we must be knowledgeable” (Hewson, 2003).

This statement is of paramount significance as it highlights one of the reasons why good animal welfare standards can be challenging for many practitioners to achieve. When horse owners and practitioners lack the skills, experience and knowledge to identify good animal welfare practices, let alone implement and maintain them, the horses under their care may exhibit mental and physical states that are indicative of low welfare standards. If you’d like to learn more about common barriers to implementing good animal welfare, click here to read our previous article.

Being knowledgeable on how to recognise good and poor horse welfare and how to implement an effective horse welfare strategy is of utmost importance to anyone that is involved in the management, training and husbandry of horses. Equally important however is acquiring a broad understanding of animal welfare and what aspects of an animal’s being are included in the definition of ‘animal welfare’.

Sentience and species-specific needs

There are two important elements that need to be acknowledged in order for animal welfare to be relevant and applicable, and that is that (1) animals are sentient beings, and (2) animals have species-specific needs that don’t always correlate with human needs or human perception of animal needs.

The European Union officially recognised animals as ‘sentient beings’ in 1997 (World Animal Net, n.d.), declaring that animals are capable of experiencing emotions and physical feelings such as pain, that they have environmental and self-awareness and are capable of learning from experiences, and that they are aware of the relationship they have with other animals and are able to distinguish between animals, objects etc. This was a monumental step for animal welfare as prior to this the general belief was the opposite – animals were genuinely regarded as incapable of feeling pain, fear, distress, and incapable of learning or forming relationships. This perception contributed to the poor treatment and welfare conditions for animals and the lack of regard for their physical and mental health.

While humans may now acknowledge animals as sentient, anthropomorphism (giving human characteristics to something non-human) takes this to the extreme in that it creates the perception that what applies to humans can be applied to animals, and this isn’t always the case. The importance of recognising that animals have needs specific to their species is especially relevant for animals that are used in a domestic context, such as horses. 

As a species, the horse has needs that may conflict with human needs and implementing a management system that disregards the horse’s needs can negatively impact the animal’s welfare. The conflicting needs are referred to as ‘created needs’, meaning that instead of acknowledging the horse’s species-specific needs, the owner has created needs that fits their perception of what is best for the horse but is in actual fact impeding the horse’s welfare. There are many examples of created needs within the managed equine environment; such as using blankets and rugs, housing horses in individual fixed stalls and paddocks, feeding high concentrate diets, and using toys and treats to control undesired behaviour.

While created needs may temporarily alleviate management and training challenges, as with most short cuts, they backfire in the end and may result in the horse sustaining injuries and health problems, developing behavioural problems or abnormal behaviour, a reduction in performance, and injury to humans.

The components of welfare

 In today’s veterinary and animal science practices, it is widely accepted that ‘animal welfare’ incorporates the animal’s physical state (physical health and being disease-free, reproductive health, body condition, an overall healthy appearance such as a shiny coat) as well as the animal’s mental state (emotional state, stress, anxiety, fear, behavioural problems), however in the past, animal welfare was only viewed in context of the animal’s physical state (Hewson, 2003).

The limitation of only looking at the physical state for signs of poor animal welfare is that a horse may appear to be physically healthy and coping well within its environment, but may simultaneously be suffering from severe anxiety due to a poor housing system for example. While physically healthy at present, chronic exposure to severe anxiety will eventually lead to health problems and a deterioration of the physical state. Even if you take into consideration physiological indicators of stress such as elevated cortisol levels and heart rate, these indicators could be misleading as they can also be attributed to a variety of circumstances that may not necessarily be linked to poor welfare, but could be due to excitement or arousal from being exposed to food, mares in heat, novel stimuli etc.

Taking the mental state component even further is the feelings-based approach to welfare which explores the way an animal feels based on its willingness to engage in the situation, so a horse that is willing to jump can be interpreted as enjoying jumping, and is based on the premise that an animal will feel best when it is able to express its natural behaviours and desires (Hewson, 2003).

While the feelings-based approach has many merits, its limitation is that physical and mental suffering is acceptable as long as it falls into the spectrum of normal behaviour, so for example discomfort from cold weather or fear from a perceived threat (Hewson, 2003). This may seem logical as a horse in its natural environment would certainly experience mental and physical suffering and many standard husbandry procedures such as vaccinations may cause stress and suffering but are ultimately performed for the animals well-being. However in a managed environment, this could also become an excuse for engaging in poor animal welfare practice and providing a lower quality of care. This approach also creates an opportunity for anthropomorphism and created needs as owners may have a skewed perception of what they believe their horse is feeling, such as enjoying to jump, when in actual fact the horse is experiencing anxiety or pain and is reacting in fear or submission.

The modern standard for animal welfare as set out by World Animal Protection; formerly WSPA (World Society for the Protection of Animals) encompasses three ‘Concepts of Animal Welfare’ – the physical state, the mental state and the natural state (World Animal Net, n.d.):

The physical approach recognises a poor state of welfare if the animal is physiologically (biologically) in such poor health that its ability to reproduce and survive is compromised, and it can physically no longer cope in its environment. We must acknowledge however that animals can be in poor health and unable to reproduce outside of the parameters of animal welfare. There are many genetic conditions that can impact the reproductive health in horses, and accidents and disease can impact even the best managed environments.

The mental approach recognises a poor state of welfare if the animal is expressing feelings of anxiety, stress, discomfort or fear within a given context. Abnormal behaviour is generally the best way of identifying a poor mental state and is indicative of an inability to cope in the environment. Abnormal behaviours include those that cause the animal harm, such as self-mutilation, or impair its physical health, such as cribbing and box-walking. The horse’s body language and general demeanour can also be used as an indicator of mental health, especially sudden onsets of behaviours that are abnormal for the individual such as human-directed aggression, as well as a lack of motivation and energy (depressive state) towards tasks that previously appeared pleasurable.

The natural approach recognises a poor state of welfare if the animal is unable to express normal, innate behaviours as it would have in a natural environment. This can also be considered an ethological approach to welfare and encompasses species-specific behaviours rather than just looking at the individual. Horses have species-specific needs that are part of their genetic make-up and need to be expressed regardless of the environment in order for the horse to maintain homeostasis (a state of physiological balance in the body). This primarily includes social behaviours (mutual grooming, play etc.), movement related behaviours (stretching, rolling etc.), and ingestion behaviours (foraging, grazing etc.).

Setting the standard for good animal welfare

While animal welfare is still undergoing continuous research so that we can better understand how to apply it in a managed context , there are two widely accepted animal welfare frameworks in use currently that encompass a variety of animal categories, such as farm/work animals, wild animals, animals used in research, and companion animals. Horses are considered a companion animal but can also fall into the category of farm and research animals depending on how they are used by humans.

The first framework is the ‘five freedoms’ which was first developed by the UK’s Farm Animal Welfare Council (FAWC). There are five aspects within this framework that must be fulfilled in order to maintain a good standard of animal welfare:

  1. Freedom from hunger and thirst – access to clean water and an appropriate diet to maintain health.
  2. Freedom from discomfort – access to shelter and comfort within an appropriate environment.
  3. Freedom from pain, injury and disease – preventative measures and access to medical treatment.
  4. Freedom to express normal behaviour – access to appropriate facilities, space, and company of conspecifics.
  5. Freedom from fear and distress – to be treated in a way that avoids mental suffering.

The five freedoms may seem to be logical applications for keeping animals, however in many cases even providing appropriate nutrition can be challenging to owners as they may lack the knowledge of what is appropriate for their horse. It is always imperative to establish good welfare practices that begin with the most basic activities and practices as this ensures a strong foundation for more complex situations.   

The second framework is the ‘five domains’ model developed in 1994 by Professor David Mellor and Dr. Cam Reid as an adaptation of the five freedoms that looks more closely at the mental approach to animal welfare and really sets the standard for what constitutes ‘good’ welfare (RSPCA, 2019).  The five domains in the assessment model include:

  • Domain 1 – Nutrition
  • Domain 2 – Environment
  • Domain 3 – Behaviour
  • Domain 4 – Health
  • Domain 5 – Mental state

Domains 1-4 represent the physical aspects of welfare while Domain 5 represents an overarching mental aspect. The five domains model works on the premise that with each physical impact on welfare there’s a corresponding mental impact, and that to promote good welfare you need to do more than just fix the physical problem as there may be adverse mental welfare impacts that remain even after the physical problems have been remedied (RSPCA, 2019).

This model represents a shift in the direction of animal welfare towards a more reward-based system where animals are encouraged to have positive and rewarding experiences that promote positive mental states rather than simply just avoiding negative ones. The difference here is the emphasis on positive engagement and experiences, and how they can be used to not only improve the animal’s welfare, but also their quality of life.

Applying this to your horse

Research would be irrelevant without the ability to apply it. Knowing what the physical and mental impacts would be on a horse within a specific context is crucial to promoting good welfare.

A group of horse welfare specialists and professionals recently published a study using an adaptation of the five domains model assessment of welfare (nutrition, environment, behaviour, health, mental state) which aimed to assess the adverse impacts of common practices on domestic horses across a variety of equine care and training contexts. The study included 116 common equine care and training practices (interventions) across the below 14 contexts (Table 1) (McGreevy, et al., 2018).

Table 1: Contexts

The findings from this study are extensive with multiple impacts and insights on equine husbandry practices, veterinary practices and training practices. Practices for each of the 14 contexts were identified that have the most severe impact on mental welfare; these are highlighted in Table 2 below (McGreevy, et al., 2018).

Table 2: Common equine practices with the highest severity of impact on the mental state

The published study provided harm vs. benefit assessment for each of the high severity impact practices in order to determine the harm to the horse in relation to the owner benefit. This type of finding and assessment enables owners to identify practices which may have an adverse impact on their horse’s mental welfare with no actual benefit to the horse or owner, and adjust their strategies accordingly.

For example, housing horses in isolation was identified as having substantial harm and no benefit to the horse and only a ‘sometimes necessary’ benefit to the owner, and abrupt weaning involving forced physical separation of the foal and dam also had substantial harm and no benefit to the horse and was avoidable for the owner (McGreevy, et al., 2018).

This clearly indicates that there are alternative practices that can be implemented in these contexts that won’t cause harm to the horse and adversely impact their mental and physical welfare, with little to no negative impact for the owner. This type of research is invaluable in providing practical information for horse owners to use when assessing their own management and training strategies for their horses.

In follow-up articles we will discuss the specific contexts of equine management and training and the various mental impacts of some common equine practices as identified in the above study, as well as practical ways to improve welfare standards within these contexts.

Responsible horse owners must ensure that they keep updated with current welfare best practice and that they periodically review and assess their own training and management practices to ensure that they are providing an environment for their horses that promotes good welfare and contributes positively toward good physical and mental equine well-being.

Additional resources for extra reading and learning

    • World Animal Protection (WSPA) website

    • Research study: Using the Five Domains Model to Assess the Adverse Impacts of Husbandry, Veterinary, and Equitation Interventions on Horse Welfare –

[McGreevy, P.; Berger, J.; De Brauwere, N.; Doherty, O.; Harrison, A.; Fiedler, J.; Jones, C.; McDonnell, S.; McLean, A.; Nakonechny, L.; Nicol, C.; Preshaw, L.; Thomson, P.; Tzioumis, V.; Webster, J.; Wolfensohn, S.; Yeates, J.; Jones, B. Using the Five Domains Model to Assess the Adverse Impacts of Husbandry, Veterinary, and Equitation Interventions on Horse Welfare. Animals 2018, 8, 41]


Hewson, C. J., 2003. What is animal welfare? Common definitions and their practical consequences. The Canadian Veterinary Journal, 44(6), pp. 496-499.

McGreevy P, Berger J, De Brauwere N, Doherty O, Harrison A, Fiedler J, Jones C, McDonnell S, McLean A, Nakonechny L, Nicol C, Preshaw L, Thomson P, Tzioumis V, Webster J, Wolfensohn S, Yeates J, Jones B. Using the Five Domains Model to Assess the Adverse Impacts of Husbandry, Veterinary, and Equitation Interventions on Horse Welfare. Animals. 2018; 8(3):41 [online] [Accessed: 29 October 2019]. 

RSPCA, 2019. What are the Five Domains and how do they differ from the Five Freedoms?. [Online]
Available at: [Accessed 29 October 2010].

World Animal Net, n.d. Definition of Animal Welfare. [Online] Available at: [Accessed 29 October 2019].



The power is in your hands – don’t settle for ignorance when it comes to your horse’s welfare

Animal welfare is becoming increasingly more important and both management and training strategies are being scrutinised in terms of how ‘welfare-friendly’ they are. The fact remains that people no longer want to stand by methods and practices that are seen as abusive, harsh or harmful to the animal. Whilst it may seem that practicing good welfare should be the norm, in reality that isn’t always the case.

Most people, aside from those with criminal intentions or those that are deeply disturbed, have good intentions toward their animals and want to see them thrive both physically and mentally. Yes, many people want to see performance and productivity whether it’s obedience to signals, successful competing, relaxed trail ride etc. but they generally won’t intentionally apply practices  at the expense of their horse’s health and well-being. So why is it that so many horses display behaviours that are indicative of poor welfare? The simple answer is that good welfare has a number of barriers that make it challenging to achieve and maintain, inaccessibility and a lack of consequences being the most common issues. 

Inaccessibility in this case refers to people’s inability to  identify and apply information related to appropriate welfare-oriented practices, so they remain blissfully ignorant while their horses suffer, even though they believe they are doing the right thing. The internet contains a multitude of information on horse training and management from peer reviewed and evidence-based sources, but there is an equal if not larger amount of information that is harmful, inappropriate, and based on outdated information and practices. The challenge that most people have is that it can be difficult to distinguish the good from the bad – clever marketing and advertising, along with using appealing anthropomorphic terms such as ‘leadership’, ‘ partnership’, ‘trust’ and ‘respect’ in relation to the human-horse relationship can make a very rotten apple seem delectable. A lack of knowledge and skills means that many people don’t know what to apply when it comes to their own horse nor are they able to filter out poor information so they end up causing more problems than what they started with. 

Once poor welfare conditions are established, the general lack of regulation and consequence means that the situation rarely improves until there is significant psychological and in many cases physical damage to the horse. Severe behavioural problems are generally the trigger for change and asking for help but by the time these behavioural issues come to light, the damage to the horse can be extensive, resulting in wastage. Some countries have less stringent animal welfare regulations and policies, or in many cases the law is there but the ability and willingness to enforce it isn’t. Many animal welfare organisations are overburdened and underfunded and therefore cannot attend to the large majority of welfare cases. Professional associations should play a supporting role by ensuring that their members abide by their codes of conduct which normally include elements pertaining to animal welfare, but what happens in the leisure environment where there is no code of conduct or regulation? 

In a 2013 European Commission Health and Consumers Directorate-General Audit carried out in South Africa in order to evaluate the health controls in place in relation to export of equidae to the EU with particular reference to African Horse Sickness, the equine population in South Africa was estimated to be around 300 000 horses, with around 20% that are registered purebred horses and about 20 000 registered Thoroughbred racehorses* . Assuming that the studs keeping record of the 60 000 (20%) registered horses have codes of conduct in place and monitor the welfare of the horses once sold and no longer housed at the stud (may not be likely), and that the racing association has good welfare practices in place for the 20 000 horses they are responsible for (once again questionable), that still leaves more than 200 000 horses that are potentially unregistered with any professional associations and are more than likely not monitored and unregulated in terms of their welfare and well-being. These are the areas where the majority of unintentional poor welfare conditions occur – people simply don’t know any better and there’s no one qualified or experienced in proper welfare to assist them in implementing best practice.

In a perfect world, any organisation that houses, trains and breeds horses should be registered with a professional association relevant to their trade, and official welfare organisations should audit and monitor professional associations, riding schools, studs, and livery environments, and assess them in relation to the welfare of their animals. This scenario is rarely a reality unfortunately, therefore it is up to the horse owner to empower themselves and build up their knowledge of animal welfare so that they are able to not only implement best practice for their own horses, but are able to educate and share knowledge with others and assist organisations in improving their environments and management if necessary. Professional and public establishments can hardly ignore criticism and pressure from their clients if they are perceived as displaying poor welfare conditions, and trainers and practitioners that aren’t implementing best practice will lose clients and could face consequences from their professional associations (assuming they are registered which in most cases they aren’t). 

Instead of feeling disempowered by the equine industry, owners should take the initiative and empower themselves to set the standard for how they want their horses to be managed, handled and trained. Support businesses, livery yards and trainers that are registered, qualified and apply best practice when it comes to animal welfare – they may seem more expensive but if you consider the consequences of allowing a horse’s welfare to deteriorate, owners face far greater costs in terms of veterinary and medical costs, remedial training, loss of performance and productivity, and human safety issues (legal issues, injuries, time off work etc.). 

Good animal welfare should be the norm, not the exception. Ultimately it’s up to welfare practitioners to ensure that the public has access to readily available and easily applicable information so that people can be empowered to make the right choices for their horses and their welfare. Horse owners equally share the responsibility of taking the initiative and using the information and knowledge to better their horse’s lives and not settle for ignorance. 


3 easy ways to enrich your horse’s environment and improve cognitive stimulation

Imagine a four year-old child fed on a diet high in starchy and sugary foods – lots and lots of excitable energy right? Now, imagine that same child is housed in a 3 meter by 4 meter playpen outside. The playpen has no toys, not much shade nor grass. There are not many friends around, and those that are there aren’t reachable as they are in separate playpens.

What do you think will inevitably develop in terms of this child’s behaviour? The child will get bored of going around and around the playpen and will begin to become frustrated. The heat and lack of shade will begin to escalate that frustration and the child will become angry. Tiredness from a lack of comfortable areas to rest will escalate the anger even further and the child will ultimately begin to cry, scream, bang on the doors and display multiple forms of undesirable behaviours.

In much the same way, a horse placed in a 3 x 4 paddock with only a bucket of water and a hay net, no shade, grass or other horses to interact with, will also quickly become bored, frustrated and will begin to display undesirable behaviours. 

Cognitively, an adult horse is not much different than a four year-old child in terms of their ability to process information and interact with their environment. Horses as far as we know don’t have the ability to reason therefore they are unable to take their poor situation and know that in a few hours’ time their owner will be coming and moving them out of the uncomfortable situation. All they know is that at present, their environment doesn’t satisfy their basic needs and is therefore boring, uncomfortable and lonely. Without the ability of foresight, the horse’s behaviour will progressively become more and more maladaptive as their needs remain unmet.  

Basic equine needs and their importance from a cognitive perspective

Precocial species (born with a high degree of independence), such as horses, are well adapted to quickly processing information from their environment as they would not survive very long after birth if this wasn’t the case. Horses learn from interacting with their environment, from experimenting with various stimuli to ascertain the outcome (trial and error), and from social interactions with other horses, their dam at first, and then other herd members. This means that horses are constantly processing information either as internal (from the body) or external (from the environment) stimuli and are either reacting to the stimulus in the form of a behavioural response which could be voluntary or involuntary, or they are ignoring the stimulus from prior learning, such as what occurs during habituation.

Involuntary responses are reflex behaviours, generally biological in their function, which the body performs automatically independent of the brain i.e. the horse doesn’t think about doing it, it happens automatically. Breathing, urinating, drinking, mating – these are all responses to biological needs. Voluntary responses are behavioural responses that are performed voluntarily by the horse for a specific reason and involve the brain; the horse is behaving due to previous experience and learned (memorised) behaviour, or is learning through interactions with its environment (trial and error learning). Eating a toxic plant will have negative consequences for the horse which will quickly be committed to memory and learned, so that when encountering the same type of plant in the future, the horse will know to avoid it.

Horses are a social species meaning that they rely on conspecifics (members of the same species) to learn, develop, grow, reproduce and ultimately survive in their environment. Majority of natural horse behaviours are facilitated by social functions i.e. mutual grooming, grazing, resting, sexual behaviour, play, learning etc. Socialisation is therefore one of the most important basic needs, together with foraging and grazing, and movement.

Foraging and grazing serve many important purposes, key of which are to: (1) supply the body with energy and nourishment, (2) facilitate other bodily functions that require energy (digestive system, thermoregulation, muscular system etc.), and (3) provide a mentally stimulating activity for nearly 70% of the day*.

In a natural environment, the nutritional quality of the available plants and grasses may be low, however the variety of different plants, grasses, bushes and small trees will supply the horse with ample hours of stimulating and engaging activity. Trees and bushes will also provide natural shelters from the sun and rain, and act as natural windbreaks. Movement and natural behaviours go hand-in-hand – the horse requires movement for almost all of its daily activities. Even resting is performed while standing thanks to the stay apparatus**.

Movement facilitates nearly all other equine basic and biological needs. It also facilitates learning through exploration and investigation, and facilitates social activities through play, mutual grooming, hierarchy structures and fighting. Movement is essential to survival and activates two vital tools of survival – the flight or fight response, the former which allows the horse to automatically and swiftly flee from a threat or attack, while the latter enables the horse to use specific agonistic responses to attack or defend itself from predators and other opponents; and the startle response which is a series of behavioural reactions to frightening stimuli that are less intense than fight or flight responses and are essential to the learning process and maintaining balance in the environment.

Startle responses serve to habituate the horse to initially frightening environmental stimuli which will gradually become neutral and the horse will stop responding to them. Imagine if this wasn’t the case, the horse would be exhausted if it jumped and bolted at every creaking branch or rustling bush. The horse’s highly evolved sensory organs become accustomed to recognising when a stimulus is a viable threat and requires the flight response, or when it is a normal environmental stimulus that can be ignored.

*Horses in the wild have been noted to graze and forage for 16 or more hours per day, which is at a minimum 67% of their daily time budget (McGreevy, 2004).

**Due to a series of muscle contractions just above the patella (kneecap) activated when the hind foot is placed on the ground, the stifle joint in the hindquarters locks in place, allowing the horse to remain balanced while standing upright during resting or sleeping. This locking action of the stifle joint is referred to as the stay apparatus (Sellnow, 2006).

It is clear therefore that the ability to satisfy basic equine needs is a key factor in maintaining healthy cognitive functioning in horses, and that the environmental context of where these behaviours occur is just as important as the act of satisfying them. To elaborate, let’s use the same example of the horse housed in a sparse, 3 x 4 paddock. Within its current environment the horse is certainly able to satisfy most basic needs – it can eat, drink, move around, rest, urinate etc. It may even be able to see other horses nearby and vocalise to them or have limited contact. But if you fast forward a few hours and add in heat or wind and slowly the horse will want to find some shade or will have built up excess energy and want to run around. Very quickly the adequate environment becomes inadequate and boredom and frustration sets in.

3 easy ways to cognitively enrich your horse’s environment:

House horses in groups instead of individually

One of the biggest impacts you can make in terms of enrichment is through socialisation and increasing the social contact your horse has throughout the day with other horses.

horses socialising

Keeping horses in groups during turnout as well as stabling is not as complicated as it may seem. Here are some tips for group housing:

  • Group horses according to preferred social partners and temperament. In other words, keep horses that get along well together, and separate those that don’t. Having multiple smaller groups that are stable and calm is much better than one large group that is constantly in turmoil.
  • Ensure that there is enough space and resources for horses to use safely and to spread out. This will lower the frequency of agonistic interactions as disagreements in groups are normally around food, water and space.
  • In terms of fixed structures such as shelters or boxes, make sure that you eliminate corners at exits/entrances to avoid creating areas where horses could get boxed in when trying to get away from each other.
  • Grouping horses in even numbers will encourage pair bonding and contribute to a stable herd.

Don’t be alarmed or immediately split your horses up at the first sign of fighting – remember that agonistic behaviours among horses are natural and they almost always look ‘louder’ and more frightening than what they actual are. Most ‘fights’ between domestic horses are actually more play-based rather than aggressive and normally revolve around personal space and resources. Pair bonded horses will often be seen displaying agonistic behaviours with one another as they tend to share much more personal space and therefore also resources with one another than other herd members and therefore get in each other’s way more. Think of it in the same way as siblings sharing a room, yes you’re going to get fights and arguments but ultimately the relationship is strong.

When should you split groups up?

The only time you would split your group up is when there are serious injuries occurring or other health problems, such as resource guarding, where one or more horses are preventing others from reaching water or feed sources which could impact on health and well being. In these instances, an increase in space and resources can be effective at calming the group, but if this isn’t possible due to space or other restrictions then splitting the group up into smaller groups or pairs will be necessary. Adding a simple barrier such as light fencing to contain each group, while still allowing visual and limited tactile contact, can be enough to maintain harmony.

Periods of discord will naturally arise when new horses are introduced into the group or if the group’s environment changes in a major way. In these cases you should just monitor the group for a few days and watch their behaviour until it stabilises – intense agonistic behaviours should calm down and become fairly infrequent.

If you’ve decided to split your group up then keeping pair bonded horses together is a must – splitting pair bonds up can have detrimental impact on welfare and should only be done if horses are being moved to different locations.

Provide foraging opportunities to promote grazing and movement

A dusty, barren paddock with more sand than grass is most certainly an inadequate and unhealthy environment for a horse to be kept in for any amount of time throughout the day, and can contribute not only to psychological and behavioural problems, but to health issues such as colic and respiratory problems as well. It would only be acceptable to use such paddocks as temporary holding pens to contain a horse for routine procedures or between training, provided that fresh water and adequate grass hay is given during confinement.

An ideal paddock should allow for ample foraging and grazing, and consist of a variety of plant materials such as mixed grasses, bushes, herbs, medicinal plants and small trees, all of which must be safe and non-toxic for horses to ingest and interact with.


Wild grass fields make for the best paddocks as they closely mimic the low nutritional quality pastures that horses would naturally have grazed on, and what their digestive systems are optimally designed for. Horses also love to nibble on trees, dig for roots, and scrape off bark from trees. Ensuring that your paddock allows for these natural behaviours to occur is certainly the best option, but it’s not always possible as we are often limited by space and resources.

What if my paddock is small and sparsely vegetated?

If you have a small paddock with a limited variety of plants and grasses or one made entirely of concrete, a good way to mimic natural grazing and encourage foraging and movement is to spread your horse’s feed across multiple locations and introduce various grasses and plant materials. Use containers that are as low to the ground as possible to also mimic the natural grazing positions.

How can I protect my one paddock from over-grazing?

If you have all your horses on one larger paddock it can quickly become over-grazed and barren. To protect your paddock and limit grazing try creating a track system which still promotes movement and the act of foraging but limits the area covered by your horses and can turn one large space into multiple areas that can be used throughout the year. Track systems can also help you keep multiple groups separate in one large field. If you’re interested in learning more about track systems, here is a good place to start.

Beware the nutritional quality of the grass and pasture you provide during stabling and turnout – too much lush, green grass can cause weight issues and can lead to more serious problems such as laminitis. You should always monitor your horse’s body condition and score them frequently to ensure they are maintaining an ideal body score.

Investigative stimulation

Horses are inherently curious animals and they learn by interacting with stimuli within their environment. One of the best ways to enrich a space and prevent boredom and frustration is to ensure that the environment is full of investigative stimuli for your horse to explore and interact with.


You can use either artificial items that aren’t naturally available in the paddock or emphasise natural existing objects already available. Here is a list of some artificial items you can use as investigative stimuli in your paddock, no matter the size:

  • Metal or plastic drums
  • Tires of varied sizes
  • Wooden or PVC ground poles
  • Buckets or containers of varied sizes – make sure they are made from sturdy materials
  • Tarps or rubber mats
  • Flag poles
  • Jump uprights
  • Plastic cones of varying sizes and shapes
  • Football-sized rubber or strong plastic balls

There are an assortment of equine toys available that can also stimulate exploration and investigation, especially those linked to food rewards.

Always make sure that any items you add are made from non-toxic materials and are safe for your horse to interact with – anything that can break into sharp pieces or small pieces should be avoided as this can cause damage and injury to you horse. Ropes, nets and materials should also carefully be monitored and avoided if possible as these can get caught around the legs and cause injury.

Make sure that you introduce new objects carefully and slowly to your horse to avoid causing fear and potentially causing harm. Don’t overload the environment with objects, stick to three items at a time and introduce new items individually.

Natural elements not only provide the best stimuli but can also promote other natural behaviours and contribute to the amount of movement a horse performs throughout the day. This in turns contributes to overall physical health as well as maintaining cognitive stimulation through the day. The below elements make for effective natural enhancers to paddocks:


Shallow water sources such as streams or ponds can be great play areas, spots to cool off in, or additional drinking sources. You could also build your own shallow pool if your paddock doesn’t have an existing water source.

water play


Creating varied terrains through the use of tracks and natural corridors of vegetation, or banking up some sections to create rises, mimics a natural, dynamic landscape and promotes movement and exploration. Adding texture to the terrain by using various footings such as dirt, gravel, grass, bark or wood chip etc. can promote physical development and create multiple areas within one space. Adding sand patches can promote rolling and resting especially if placed in shady areas.



Large trees, logs or stumps are great natural scratching posts while clumps of trees and bushes are good places for horses to rest as the sheltered space promotes a feeling of safety and also provides protection from the sun, wind or rain. Sticks and fallen branches can be great oral stimulants and promote foraging and movement. Artificial objects such as tires, drums and poles can be added if there is a lack of vegetation as they will also stimulate oral and tactile exploration. If natural shade is sparse then you will need to provide a shelter or shaded area in your paddock that can protect your horse from the elements during turnout.



Horses will eventually habituate to any artificial items and will stop interacting with them. To maintain a level of interest and exploration, make sure that you periodically change up the objects in the paddock either by changing their angles, their orientation or position, or swapping them out for other objects. It’s best to keep at least three objects in the paddock at a time and then swap them out every week or so. This will of course depend on the size of your paddock and herd. Larger groups of horses will benefit most from social interactions therefore environmental stimuli will be less important and larger paddocks allow for more natural stimuli, reducing the need for too many artificial objects. In cases where you have smaller enclosures and horses that are housed individually, artificial objects become more necessary.

Welfare as a key consideration 

Whilst most domestic environments strive to provide horses with safe and mostly comfortable facilities, they generally fail to account for the horse’s active mind and cognitive needs, and this is actually what primarily leads to the development of problematic behaviours associated with housing in stables and paddocks such as cribbing, wood chewing, box walking and damaging property by kicking at fences or doors (commonly referred to as stereotypies, these are seemingly pointless behaviours that the horse performs repetitively and almost compulsively for no obvious reason).

The development of stereotypies is generally viewed as a welfare concern and a sign of a poor, inadequate environment, therefore anytime that a horse shows signs of stereotypic behaviour, the easiest and swiftest way of managing and halting the behaviour is to assess the environment and look at ways of enriching it not only to improve the physical well being of the horse but to improve cognitive well being as well.   


University of Kentucky College of Agriculture, Food and Environment, 2019. Body Condition Scoring Horses: Step-by-Step. [Online]
Available at:
[Accessed 24 July 2019].

All-natural-horse-care, 2006. Paddock Paradise. [Online]
Available at:
[Accessed 24 July 2019].

McGreevy, P., 2004. Equine Behavior: A Guide for Veterinarians and Equine Scientists. London: Elsevier Limited.

Sellnow, L., 2006. Anatomy & Physiology – The Complete Series. The Horse Publication. Available at: [Accessed 1 June 2018].

Dealing with intense fear responses in horses

Dr. Temple Grandin, a professor of animal science at Colorado State University, explains how horses process and respond to fear and why it is important to (1) heed the warning signals before behaviour escalates, and (2) allow sufficient time for the horse to calm down if highly aroused – not a minute or two, but at least half an hour.

Dr. Temple Grandin explains fear in horses and how to deal with fear responses.

Horses have sensory memories therefore they associate fearful, unpleasant experiences through their senses – visual, olfactory (smell), oral, tactile or audible. Fearful experiences are also often linked to associated stimuli depending on how the initial experience occurred – this often explains why a horse will begin to display fear responses when the Vet drives into the yard – they recognise the sound, smell or visual appearance of the vehicle.

High intensity fear requires significant time for the system to level out and go back into a restorative state. Any stimuli or events that take place during an intensely fearful episode may become linked with that experience and committed to long-term memory.

This scenario isn’t necessarily relevant for spooking or shying episodes where the fear response is mild and passes quickly – the parasympathetic state comes in after a few seconds and generally the horse is able to begin exploring and investigating the stimulus fairly quickly and thereafter carry on with their activity as normal. If the fear behaviour is escalating however and the horse is consistently showing increasing intensity of fear responses, it will go into fight or flight mode and this can pose a dangerous situation for both the horse and the human.

Learn to read your horse’s fear signals and don’t ignore them or mistakenly assume that the horse will rationalise the fear away – ‘it’s just a plastic bag’, ‘just some thunder’ etc. Horses can’t perform this level of cognitive processing to apply reason or logic to situations.

Fear signals include exposing the whites of the eyes, lifting the head up, tightening of the nostrils, stiff extended top lip and an overly tense body and head.

Allow the horse to completely calm down to the point where they begin to show investigative behaviour – sniffing, licking, mouthing, ears forward, alert posture, head lowered to the ground – this will indicate to you that the horse is ready and able to process stimuli once again within the brain as opposed to reflex responses which bypass the brain.

Working with horses: creating a positive experience

horse training ethical

When broken down to its basic definition, the  training of horses is essentially about promoting behaviours which we desire and are of value to us, while suppressing or eradicating behaviours which we find undesirable, in other words unwanted behaviours.

In order to successfully achieve this, a trainer must know what behaviour is before they can begin to manipulate it.

Behaviour is a process of actions and reactions performed by an individual in reaction to internal or external stimuli in context of the environment.

It stands to reason therefore that a trainer would need to consider the training environment and any stimuli present – controllable as well as uncontrollable variables. The trainer would also need to consider their own behaviour and how this may be perceived by the horse, as well as any internal processes taking place within the horse’s physiology.

With so many elements to consider and so many uncontrollable variables that may occur, you can ascertain that training is in fact a complex process that requires careful consideration, planning and constant development. And despite all this careful planning, a trainer must still be quick on their feet, reactive to slight signals, emotionally neutral, and adaptable to changing circumstances. It comes as no surprise therefore that most training sessions tend to skip over the softer elements of the process instead of harnessing them to make the overall process of horse training more effective.

Tapping into instincts

Instinctive equine behaviours or what would be referred to as natural behaviours, are a set of behaviours inherent to the equine species that are performed within their natural environment for the purpose of survival, reproduction and growth. Once removed from their natural environment, these instinctive behaviours don’t cease to exist; the horse simply adapts its behaviour to its present environmental context.

If adaptation isn’t possible, natural behaviours can’t be expressed normally, giving way to abnormal behaviour or the development of behavioural problems, emotional and physical distress, and suppressed physiological responses and lowered immunity.

When instinctive behaviours are normally expressed, the horse is both mentally and physically balanced and is able to reach an optimal level of functioning. Encouraging instinctive behaviour in training stimulates the horse mentally, promotes memory and other cognitive functions, and allows the horse to attain a positive affective state.

Instinctive behaviours can either be active or passive and a trainer is able to utilise either one depending on their training goals. Passive behaviours include resting, stretching, grooming, grazing, drinking water, and standing in the shade. A horse that is easily excited by stimuli can be kept calm and manageable during training by tapping into passive behaviours as opposed to chasing the horse around a pen in the hopes of tiring it out enough – this has the opposite effect and can impede on the horse’s welfare instead of promote effective training. 

Allowing for brief periods of passive activity, such as a calm rub down or some grazing and resting in the shade, can quickly deescalate potential conflict situations and allow for the horse to reach a state of calm and balance before resuming training. Frequent escalations in conflict should serve as a signal to the trainer to re look at their training strategy – they are either asking too much of the horse or not asking clearly enough for the horse to understand.

grooming, horse relaxes and becomes calm grazing relaxes a horse and gives them a mental break

Useful active instinctive behaviours include investigation and exploration, rolling, and play. These behaviours are invaluable in training as they can serve many purposes – to habituate or desensitise a horse when frightened by stimuli, to energise a ‘dull’ horse, to redirect nervous energy and calm a distressed horse, and to enhance learning and memory.

Active behaviours are especially useful for reactive and responsive horses that tend to get bored and frustrated easily with repetitive exercises resulting in conflict behaviours such as pawing or barging. Incorporating brief interludes into a training session where instinctive behaviours are engaged can redirect the horse’s energy again, engage them mentally and prevent the situation from escalating into conflict. Objects such as cones, drums, poles, flags, tarps, buckets, tires… any item that is safe for the horse to orally and physically interact with can be incorporated into any training, whether in-hand or under saddle, to engage investigative and exploratory  behaviours and provide for a mentally stimulating interaction. This serves as an effective break between repetitive routines during training.

investigative equine behaviour active rolling behaviour

The power of positivity

For training to be both effective in achieving performance goals, humane towards the horse, and safe for the human, the trainer must ensure that conflict and stress is kept to a minimum, that fear responses such as flight or aggression are avoided, and that the horse remains stimulated, responsive and engaged rather than dull, indifferent or confrontational. 

Maintaining a positive affective state throughout the training session is therefore vital and positive experiences result in enhanced learning, increased memory, less repetition, lowered stress, and pleasant associations that the horse forms not only with the trainer but also the environment and any objects or stimuli within the environment, such as tack or equipment.

For the trainer, this type of positive interaction is the ultimate prize – it means that their goal of promoting desired behaviour becomes easier and more effective; the horse is more receptive to new behaviours and learns faster, and human-horse interactions are safer and devoid of conflict. Suppressing or eradicating unwanted behaviour becomes less necessary – problem behaviours during training can be altogether eliminated.

Anyone can fulfill the basic definition of training, but to be a great trainer, an ethical trainer, one needs  to work with the horse as a species, use the way the horse learns and instinctively behaves as tools to promote positive experiences rather than working against them.

5 easy ways to get your horse winter-ready

Horse owners in South Africa tend to breathe a sigh of relief as soon as the first frosts sparkle on the ground. The dreaded African Horse Sickness (AHS) season is over for now, hibernating until it rears its ugly head again in a few months’ time.

That sigh of relief however is short-lived as we enter the winter season and are barraged by questions of should we clip, should we blanket, if we’re blanketing how cold is too cold, what type of blanket, how do I keep my horses in good condition, should my horses continue to be turned out or not… Then there’s the whole other set of questions we’re not asking, and the thought of skipping over a vital element in your daily management regime and possibly impacting negatively on your horse’s wellbeing is enough to drive any horse owner to curl up in a ball in the stable and wish the winter season away.


Before you bring out the bubble wrap (with thermal insulation of course) or start driving your Vet batty with questions, we’ve prepared a list of 5 easy ways that you can get yourself and your horse ready for winter so that you can rest easy and enjoy the chilly season for all its positive attributes.

Nature made sure horses could look out for themselves

When wild horses roamed the open, grassy plains and steppes they had one singular purpose – to survive in their environment. Nature made sure that horses were given a helping hand and equipped their bodies with some pretty amazing physiological, anatomical and behavioural capabilities, enabling them to flee instantly from predators, rest while standing, and graze while still being able to scan their surroundings for predators. Another nifty capability was thermoregulation which is simply the body’s ability to regulate its own temperature.  

Luckily for the species, even though no longer wild and free roaming, horses have kept their natural gifts and thermoregulation is one of the most useful bodily functions to have in a domestic environment, but can also easily result in discomfort and health problems if mismanaged.

Thermoregulation is constantly occurring to keep the body in balance, and it works in two ways – heat is either produced when the core body temperature drops, called thermogenesis, or heat is lost during a process called thermolysis. This adaptation of body temperature occurs involuntarily, meaning that physiological functions within the body will automatically adapt the body temperature in response to fluctuations caused by the external environment.

Process of Thermoregulation during exercise. Source: Veterian Key

Horses can lose up to 85% of their body heat through the skin surface, and around 15% will be lost during respiration. If this heat loss is not sufficient, the horse will begin to sweat in order to reduce body temperature even further. Horses can produce a huge amount of sweat over a short period of time (1/4 of a liter per minute) which also means major fluid loss in the form of water and electrolytes. Sweating also uses up a lot of energy, which in turn produces heat, so if the horse isn’t able to regulate properly, for example they may be enclosed in a warm stable or could be wearing a thick blanket, the body temperature will continue to rise and can reach dangerous levels. Horses can also suffer dehydration and excessive fatigue due to over-heating.

Since thermoregulation is a two-way street, heat must also be produced in order to maintain balance within the body. Heat is produced through metabolic processes (digestion) and the contraction and extension of the muscles i.e. movement. Any form of locomotive activity will produce heat as all the other systems (cardiovascular, respiratory, digestive) gear up to fuel the body. Shivering also produces heat during muscle contraction. It’s not just the horse’s sensitive and complex digestive system that requires small amounts of food to be eaten almost continuously throughout the day; this trickle-feeding form of ingestion also provides heat for the body as food is metabolised.

Due to the fact that horses are so capable of producing heat from internal sources, they are more suited to colder weather as it’s far easier to heat up the body than to cool it off. Always remember to keep thermoregulation in mind when you’re standing next to your horse freezing, while they contentedly graze – they’re busy producing fuel that’s keeping their body at an ideal temperature so the two of you are experiencing the external temperature in very different ways.

With this in mind, let’s take a look at the five aspects you should keep in mind when preparing your horse for winter.

  1. Make sure to assess your horse’s nutrition
Feed quantity and quality

As mentioned, the metabolic process is one of the main sources of internal heat for the horse so ensuring that your horse has enough food throughout the day is vital to maintaining healthy body temperature. 

While having the correct quantity of food will help maintain good health, it is also vital to ensure that the quality of the food is high enough to maintain good body condition.

As with any changes to exercise, health, environment or body condition, seasonal changes also require a re-assessment of your horse’s nutritional requirements. The recommended increase to daily feed quantity is 1% of dry feed for every degree below 18°F/-8°C. If a horse enters the winter season with a thick, natural coat and enough fat cover, they should be able to maintain healthy condition until then. If shelter is provided, horses in good winter condition can comfortably withstand temperatures as low as -40°F/-40°C.

horses-eating-hayWhen it comes to the question of what to feed, the answer to any feed increase is to always increase roughage first rather than adding more concentrates. Fibrous feeds such as hay and grass hay are digested through microbial fermentation in the hind-gut and take much longer to digest than starches, proteins and carbohydrates. This longer digestion process allows for a longer and slower release of energy as well as a longer release of heat. It is important to ensure that you are feeding high quality roughage so that your horse is getting the highest nutritional benefit possible from their feed.

If you’re ever in doubt about your horse’s condition or feed requirements, make sure that you consult with your Vet or a certified Equine Nutritionist in order to set up the correct feeding regime for your horse. You can also periodically score your horse’s body condition to see if there are any fluctuations by using a body condition scoring chart.

Fluids, fluids and more fluids!

Having access to clean, fresh water throughout the day is an essential nutritional requirement for horses no matter the season but in winter there is another element that horse owners need to pay special attention to and that is the temperature of the water.

Horses have a preference for drinking lukewarm water, and will decrease the amount they drink per day if the temperature of the water is too cold.

This spells bad news for horse owners with outdoor water troughs that could potentially freeze, even indoor troughs and buckets could reach freezing temperatures that are just not palatable to horses.

It is essential that water temperature is well managed and closely monitored throughout the day to ensure that your horses are getting enough fluids, especially if sweating may occur from increased activity, blanketing or being enclosed in a heated stable. Inadequate water intake can lead to dehydration, colic, over-heating and other health problems so careful management is a must.

Providing salt blocks or adding salt to the water will encourage water intake and will also help maintain mineral balance within the body.

2.   Ensure your horse has outdoor access and exercise

The last thing you want to do, unless absolutely necessary due to severe weather, is to keep your horse indoors all winter. Firstly, your horse’s mental health will take a serious nosedive and your horse’s physical health may also plummet due to lack of movement.

Movement is an essential aspect for a number of physiological functions, such as digestion, thermoregulation, cardiovascular health, and respiratory health. Without ample movement and exercise your horse’s body may not be able to thermoregulate properly as heat is produced during movement, or your horse may lose condition as more energy is needed to maintain body heat so more calories are burned resulting in weight loss and muscle loss. If too much food is provided but no movement, your horse may gain too much weight and become susceptible to laminitis and other health issues. Stress from too much confinement can cause major health problems such as colic, and could lead to other behavioural stereotypies, such as crib biting or weaving to develop which may be very difficult to reduce or manage later on.


Remember that healthy horses in a good condition are able to withstand very cold temperatures so letting your horse out into the paddock for some exercise every day, or even riding out and implementing a winter training routine, will help maintain your horses health throughout winter.

3.   Ensure that adequate shelter is provided in outdoor areas

So you’ve filled up your hay bins, installed a water trough heater and made sure that your horse receives plenty of fun and sun (if there’s any) outdoors. That’s that and you can now go on holiday where the sun shines warmly over tropical beaches…

Not quite yet unfortunately. It goes without saying that horses are a 24/7 commitment and daily monitoring and management is an absolute must, but in winter this is even more essential and while human cloning may become a reality in the future, you are still only one person and won’t always be available in a second to deal with unplanned events such as sudden changes in weather conditions.


Iyou’re turning your horses out during winter make sure that you have adequate shelter in the paddock so that your horses can take refuge should the weather turn and you’re not in close proximity. Outdoor shelters don’t need to be complex constructions that give the Eiffel Tower a run for its money – as long as there is adequate protection from weather elements, the structure is sturdy and safe, and there is enough space for all the horses to be comfortable inside, you’ve got a hit.

4.   Be prepared to deal with the elements

If your winter season comes with rain or snow and freezing temperatures then you can be sure that it will also come with mud and ice. Besides keeping water troughs de-iced and any areas that your horse frequents free from ice and mud, such as shelters and stables, and around feed bins and water buckets, mud and ice could also mean slippery and dangerous surfaces that can cause injuries to both horses and humans, or health issues such as mud fever. Being prepared means a few new management strategies to include in your daily routine so you’re on the ball if any issues crop up.

horse-turnout-paddockIf you will be turning your horses out during the day, plan a smaller turnout area closer to your stables or barn that is graveled or has some other non-slippery surface so that you can still let your horses enjoy the outdoors and move around but keep them in a smaller and safer area if the surface conditions are too icy, muddy or otherwise unfavourable. Make sure that these turnout areas provide access to an adequate shelter.

5.   Manage your horse care routine, but don’t over-manage your horse

We’ve mentioned it before but it’s worth a repeat as most welfare issues concerning horses stem from ignorance, lack of knowledge and mismanagement, rather than intentional abuse or neglect – horses are well equipped to manage themselves in most contexts and environments as long as we have provided the adequate essentials such as shelter, food, water and movement.

Human needs or wants result in created needs for horses, in other words needs that horses wouldn’t normally have as a species but now do because of human management. These needs may sometimes be required to maintain the comfort and health of the horse, such as the need to blanket the horse because the winter coat has been clipped, or the need to clip the coat in the first place due to intensive training schedules and competition. But in general, over-managing your horse’s needs can create welfare problems and negatively impact on your horse’s health.

Some of the most common created needs, especially during winter, are grooming, clipping and blanketing horses. While grooming twice per day should be part of any daily management routine, full grooming twice a day may not always be necessary or practical during winter. Instead of a full grooming session twice per day, try replacing one session with a hand rub instead. Run your hands all over the horse’s body as if you were brushing the coat. While getting rid of excess hair, you can also check for any lumps, bumps, cuts or foreign objects. Your horse may also benefit greatly from the soothing rub and by using your fingertips to gently brush the coat you are also stimulating the skin, hair follicles and natural oils.


Clipping and blanketing go hand-in-hand; if you have no need to clip your horse then you shouldn’t have a need to blanket your horse, provided that your horses have access to a shelter and ample roughage, as they would have naturally grown a thick, insulating winter coat to protect the body from heat loss. With intensive training however, horses produce large amounts of sweat and because of the thickness of the winter coat it can take hours for the coat to fully dry. Horses should never be blanketed or closed in the stable with a wet coat so most people that are training their horses throughout winter will clip the coat to make this process more manageable. There are a few different types of coat clips that you can choose from depending on your and your horse’s needs.


Owning horses is one of the most amazing and rewarding experiences but it is also extremely stressful and full of challenges and risks. By making preparations ahead of time, taking a few deep breaths when panic sets in, and taking the time to really look at your horse and listen to them if you’re unsure of what to do, you’ll not only survive the winter but will add another level of confidence to your management abilities the next time around.

Leave us a comment below about what you do to prepare your horses for winter and be sure to sign-up for our 8-week online course on Equine Behaviour & Management if you want to expand your knowledge on equine behaviour, healthcare, management, nutrition, learning and training.


Learning theory explained: reinforcement and punishment

In recent years many researchers have questioned a number of popular training methods, specifically those utilizing round pen training and the application of ‘flight’ or ‘dominance’ to gain submission/respect/trust in a horse. Researchers have studied and experimented with these methods in order to determine whether these methods are humane ways of training or whether they are detrimental to a horse’s welfare. In most cases, the latter seems to be the general conclusion. Once published these results and conclusions seem to create quite a debate within the equestrian community depending on whether you advocate these methods or oppose them. This also seems to bring about some confusion around the training principles of using reinforcement and punishment, what they actually refer to and their practical applications.

So to clear things up, here is a quick overview of these training principles as represented by Figure 1 below:

horse training matrix of reinforcement and punishment
Reinforcement and punishment training matrix – taken from Equine Behaviour and Management Course, Training Principles Week 5, page 28

Increasing the occurrence of desired behaviour

Reinforcement is defined in learning theory as the intention to increase the likelihood of a behaviour occurring again; therefore that behaviour would be something that is desirable to you as a trainer and your intention is to increase the chances of your horse performing it when cued.

There are two ways one can go about this – you can either apply a stimulus in order to reinforce the behaviour, in which case the stimulus would be something of value to the horse at the specific moment . This is called positive reinforcement (PR) in the mathematical sense of + as in adding to. You can also remove a stimulus in order to reinforce the behaviour, in which case you would remove a stimulus that is aversive/unpleasant to the horse, this is called negative reinforcement (NR), also in a mathematical sense of – or removing. Positive and negative therefore do not refer to unpleasant and pleasant in this case, but the actual mathematical theories of adding or removing.

Your reinforcers, whether for NR or PR must be of value to the horse at that specific moment. A horse that is hot and irritated may not value a scratch as much as a break in the shade, or a horse that doesn’t like being touched may not value the scratch but may place a high value on carrots. Knowing your horse well in various situations is key to effective reinforcement for PR. For NR, the most common reinforcer used is pressure. This is where some people seem to confuse things. Pressure isn’t necessarily bad nor detrimental to the horse. How it is applied is what makes the difference. If your timing and intensity is incorrect, your reinforcer will be ineffective and the horse will have an unpleasant experience. One must always avoid aspects of training that purposefully harm or instill intense fear – these are not things that NR promotes or advocates. NR is about applying the lightest possible stimulus that when removed will reinforce a specific behaviour.

Lightness and timing in training is key

This is why researchers tend to question round pen training. The principles of effective NR is firstly a light application of pressure that doesn’t trigger the flight response or instill fear/pain. Secondly, once the desired behaviour is performed, the pressure is removed immediately. When first training a behaviour, shaping is commonly applied which means that the reinforcer applied, if aversive such as pressure, is only applied for a very short period of time. In some round pen training. the horse is purposefully placed into a flight response by the application of high intensity pressure and this pressure is sustained for a long period of time, or until specific signals are observed in the horse by the trainer i.e. calming signals or incorrectly referred to as submission signals. This is not the correct or effective use of NR and can be detrimental to the horse’s affective state and overall welfare.

The point of effective NR is to use the lowest intensity of the stimulus as possible and remove it as soon as the desired behaviour is performed. While many people misunderstand NR, it is actually the most commonly applied training principle during horse training and can be very effective. Horses being prey animals, are more sensitive to aversive stimuli and also respond very effectively to pressure cues and body positioning/posture. This is one of their primary methods of communicating with conspecifics.

Effectiveness of punishment

Punishment in Learning Theory is defined as the intention to decrease the likelihood of a behaviour occurring, therefore the behaviour is undesirable to you as the trainer and your intention is to prevent it from happening.

You can either add a stimulus, in which case an aversive stimulus would be applied, and is called positive punishment (PP) or you remove a high value stimulus which is called negative punishment (NP). Once again, positive and negative are + and – in the mathematical sense. Punishment is generally regarded as an ineffective method for training that is detrimental to the horse’s welfare, however I do believe that it should be viewed objectively and in specific contexts before it is brushed aside. A punisher (the stimulus you add or remove) is once again dependent on intensity and value to the horse in order to be effective. No value or incorrect intensity and your training is ineffective. Consider this common example – a horse that is quite mouthy and has a tendency to nip – what would you most likely do when next to the horse? Most people would either reprimand it verbally, by sharply saying ‘no’ if the horse tried to nip them, or would move away and out of the horse’s reach. Bot of these are actually punishment. Using a vocal cue of ‘no’ is ultimately the application of an aversive stimulus (stern voice, or a sharp sound) in order to prevent the undesired behaviour from occurring. Moving away is the removal of a stimulus that the horse values (your presence or your attention) with the intention of preventing the undesired behaviour. The question here is whether either of these two methods would be effective in reducing the likelihood of this behaviour occurring in the future, or are they only effective in the present moment? The most likely answer is that they are only effective in the present moment.Counter conditioning a desired behavioural response in place of the undesired one is the most effective way of reducing the propensity for the undesired behaviour to occur in the future. While punishment is more commonly used than we may be aware of, ultimately it is ineffective over the long-term. Punishment should never be applied in cases where emotional problems or behavioural problems due to anxiety/pain/fear etc. are suspected.

It is also worth noting that whilst these four quadrants represent separate training principles within learning theory, they are interrelated in a way. When teaching a horse to halt, your desired behaviour is the halt, which you could use NR to condition. However, your intention is also to stop a behaviour – the forward movement, which requires the application of an aversive stimulus first before your can remove it. Therefore you are actually applying PP first before you apply NR. Similarly, to condition the cue for walk forward, you could use PR by giving the horse a carrot when they successfully walk forward when cued. However, you are also practicing NP because you are withholding the valued stimuli while the horse stands still and only applying the reinforcer when the desired behaviour is given.

The lesson here is to ensure that you have a thorough and objective understanding of the training principles and how they are applied in different contexts, so that you can adapt your training to suit your horse’s needs at that present moment. Each moment is unique to a horse, so if NR worked well yesterday, it doesn’t mean that today it will be the most appropriate method. You must be flexible and able to adapt your training to your horse, your horse shouldn’t be adapting to you.